MMO Anode Manufacturing Process

The typical manufacturing process for MMO anodes starts with surface preparation of the substrate by thoroughly cleaning the commercially pure titanium. This is followed by a chemical etching and in some cases mechanical abrasion of the surface. Once the substrate surface preparation is complete, the coating is applied as a mixture of metal salts and then thermally decomposed at temperatures ranging 400 to 600 °C. This forms an adherent layer of mixed metal oxides.

The MMO coatings can be applied in many layers and heat treated after each coat to achieve the desired coating loading to meet the current capacity requirements for the application.

Saga Anode provides metal oxide and metal mixture oxide coated (MMO coated) titanium anode such as RuO2/IrO2 coated anode, platinised anode. These anodes are used for cathode protection. 
RuO2, IrO2 coated anodes are used in chlor-alkali process, sodium hypochlorite production, sewage treatment and sea water desalinization, etc..
IrO2, Ta2O5 coated anode can be used in electrolytic copper foil, Al foil, organic electrolyte production and catholic protection.
Pt coated anodes are used in electrolytic deposition and water treatment, etc.. This is called Platinized Titanium Anode.
PbO2 coated Titanium electrodes are widely used in perchlorate production and sewage treatment, etc..

Titanium anode is also called DSA (dimensional stable anode) anode or insoluble Ti anode due to its good dimension stability and high corrosion resistance, which can prevent it from polluting the electrolysis solution and increase final product purity.

Applications of titanium anode

Application Fields:


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Electrowinning Anodes

Electrowinning, also called electroextraction, is the electrodeposition of metals from their ores that have been put in solution via a process commonly referred to as leaching. Electrorefining uses a similar process to remove impurities from a metal. Both processes use electroplating on a large scale and are important techniques for the economical and straightforward purification of non-ferrous metals. The resulting metals are said to be electrowon. Read more

Electrowinning Anodes


Platinised titanium anodes are recommended for use in the following
electrolytic processes:

  • Precious metal electroplating – e.g. Au, Pt, Pd, Rh and Ru baths
  • Non-ferrous metal electroplating – e.g. Ni, Cu, Sn, Zn and non-fluoride
    Cr baths.

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Brief Introduction
ICCP systems as an effective method for corrosion control has been widely approved by people.
Its principle is based on the theory of electrochemical. The material to be protected from corrosion by passing of an external cathode current, reduce the surface potential of the protected material. Thus reducing the corrosion rate of metal.ICCP systems has been widely applied in reinforced concrete, ships, Bridges, tanks, chemical equipment, pipeline etc. Auxiliary anodes is one of the core components of ICCP systems, It is meaningful for correct choice of auxiliary anodes. Read more


Our anodes are used in processes such as potable water treatment, treatment of process water and wastewater, but also for recovery and separation of valuable or environmentally hazardous materials. For instance:

  • Electrochemical recovery of metals (Ni, Cd, Cu, Zn, Sn, Ag, Au, etc.)
  • Direct or indirect oxidation and break-down of organic contamination or cyanide
  • Removal of small solid particles by means of electroflocculation
  • Electrodialysis, desalination of process water and recovery of several materials
  • Softening of water, de-scaling
  • Membrane processes

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Titanium Anodes Classification

Titanium Anodes Classification Ruthenium Coated Titanium Anodes Iridium Coated Titanium Anodes Platinum Coated Titanium Anodes
Based material TA1、TA2 TA1、TA2 TA1、TA2
Coating RuO2/RuO2+IrO2+X IrO2+Ta2O5 Pt
Product Specification processed according to customers’ drawings,
Appearance have plate, tube, mesh, rod, wire
Process according to customers’ drawings,
Appearance have plate, tube, mesh, rod, wire
Process according to customers’ drawings,
Appearance have plate, tube, mesh, rod, wire
Parameter Current range: < 2000A/㎡
Operating temperature: 25°-50 ° c
Ruthenium-Iridium content: 10-15g/㎡
Coating thickness: 3 to 10 microns
Applied Environment: PH value: 0-14 (neutral electrolyte solution is recommended)
Current range: < 2000A/㎡
Operating temperature: 25°-60 ° c
Iridium content: 10-15g/㎡
Coating thickness: 3 to 10 microns
Applied Environment: PH value: 0-14
Current range: < 5000A/㎡
Operating temperature: 25°-80 ° c
Platinum content: 3-30g/㎡
Coating thickness: 0.3-3 micron
Environment: PH value: 0-14
Introduction The surface of the product is black, with uniform coating, strong bonding, low chlorine potential, long service life, high current efficiency The surface of the product is black, with uniform coating, firm combination, low oxygen evolution potential, acid resistance, corrosion resistance, long service life, through large current and other advantages The product surface is silver gray, platinum content 99%, with high corrosion resistance, stable operation under high voltage, high electrolysis efficiency, energy saving, no secondary pollution and other advantages
Application Chlor-alkali industry, chlorate industry, ionized water electrolysis, food tableware disinfection, electrolysis of seawater chlorine production, circulating water descaling,  electrodealysis, sewage treatment and other industries Metal foil, electrolytic electroplating, cathodic protection, organic electrolysis synthesis, cyclone electrolysis, hydrometallurgy, HHO generator, sewage treatment and other industries Electrolytic ionized water, acid oxidation potential water, electroplating, hydrogen generator and other industries

Titanium for electroplating

In the electroplating industry our anodes are used for:

  • Electro galvanising (zinc plating), including steel strip plating
  • Precious metal plating (gold, silver, palladium, etc.)
  • Hard chromium plating
  • Nickel plating
  • Tin plating (steel strips)
  • Copper plating, copper foil production and copper foil treatment and PCB manufacturing
  • Aluminium anodising in liquid-contact-cells

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